Sunday, 1 March 2020

Index to my book, God in 3D: Finding the Trinity in the Bible and the Church Fathers

The absence of an index in my recent book has been queried. To make amends, please find below an index. Please let me know if you have any questions.

The book is available at: https://wipfandstock.com/god-in-3d.html

Colin




Ancient Document Index


Ancient Near Eastern Documents

El Amarna letters, 230.


Apocrypha

Psalms of Solomon, 84
Judith, 82.
Tobit, 82-83.



Pseudepigrapha

2 Baruch, 149.
1 Enoch, 60 n.6.


Dead Sea Scrolls


11Q19, 149.


      Early Jewish Writings


Philo, 223, 223 n.4.


Rabbinic Writings

Targum of Chronicles, 22 n.9; 150.
Targum of Jeremiah, 251.
Targum Pseudo-Jonathan: Deuteronomy, 251.
Targum of Psalms, 251.
Uzziel, Chaldee Paraphrase on the Prophet Isaiah, 62 n.10.


        Gnostic Writings

Excerpta Ex Theodoto, 152.
The Gospel of Truth, 153, 251.



Early Christian Writings


Ambrose, 13-17, 20, 41, 45, 113 n.8, 143-145, 147, 154, 222-223.
Augustine, 13-14, 20, 41, 137, 145, 147, 154, 179, 181, 223.
Barnabas, 137, 139.
Clement of Alexandria, 37.
Cyprian, 141-143, 223.
Cyril of Alexandria, 146, 223.
Didache, 137-38, 167.
Eusebius, 145-46.
Hermas, 137-38.
Irenaeus, 141, 151-53.
Jerome, 13-14, 20, 41, 50, 145, 223
Justin Martyr, 140-41, 243.
Origen, 141, 143, 143 n.18, 143 n.19.
Second Clement, 139-140.
Tertullian, 94, 141-42, 223.



Author Index


Bates, Matthew W., 38 n.19, 104 n.2.
Bauckham, Richard, 90 n.1, 210 n.14, 210 n.15, 247 n.93, 251 n.102.
Beale, G. K., 60 n.5, 70 n.14, 97 n.13, 109 n.5, 139 n.6, 237, 252, 252 n.105.
Bonnington, Mark, 24 n.13, 224 n.5, 241, 241 n.70.
Bulgakov, Sergius. 238-240, 238 n.54, 243-245.
Calvin, John, 104 n.2.
Forster, Roger, 167 n.10, 254.
Fossum, Jarl E., 235, 235 n.47, 242, 251.
Gärtner, Bertil, 244-5.
Gieschen, Charles A., 78 n.7, 90 n.2, 137 n.5, 149 n.27, 152 n.36, 167 n.9, 168 n.11, 229, 242-43.
Gignilliat, Mark S., 193 n.6.
Green, Michael. 84 n.12.
Hurowitz, Victor, 231 n.29-30, 233.
Hurtado, Larry W., 122 n.16, 124 n.18, 128 n.25, 129 n.26, 131 n.31, 141 n.12, 166 n.7, 172 n. 14, 228-29, 242-43, 245, 250-51.
Johansson, Daniel, 122 n.17,  
Johnson, Aubrey R., 240.
Kenworthy, Scott M., 238 n.55, 238 n.56.
Knight, G. A. F., 22 n.8, 241-42, 248.
Köstenberger, Andreas J., and Scott R. Swain, 131 n.28.
Leithart, Peter J., 8 n.2, 33 n. 17, 58 n.3, 228 n.16, 232 n.32.
McConville, J. G., 74 n.3, 235-36, 245, 249 n.97.
Mettinger, T. N. D., 227-28, 231-35, 240 n.65, 245.
Michaels, J. R., 97 n.14.
O’Collins, Gerald, 225 n.8.
Parke-Taylor, G.H., 228, 233.
Richter, Sandra L., 224 n.6, 229 n.22, 230-36, 240 n.65, 250 n.99.
Rotherham, J. B., 97 n.14.
Salier, Bill, 252.
Seters, John Van., 231.
Skarsaune, Oskar, 43 n.21, 245.
Smith, Steve. 244 n.84, 248 n.94, 248 n.95, 249 n.96.
Stevenson, Gregory, 76 n.6, 149 n.28, 230 n.24, 245, 245 n.89.
Strange, Daniel, 252 n.105.
Swain, Scott R., 130 n.28,, 170 n.13, 193 n.5, 193 n.6, 205 n.12, 205 n.13.
Thompson, Alan J., 122 n.17.
Turner. Max, 125 n.19.
von Rad, Gerhard, 226-30, 234-35.
Wainwright, Arthur W., 181 n.16, 181 n.17, 182 n.18, 242, 246.
Warfield, Benjamin D., 220 n.1, 220 n.2.
Wenham, John. 175 n.15.
Wesley, John, 92 n.6, 118 n.13.
Wilson, Ian, 75 n.5, 120 n.15, 164 n.5, 165 n.6, 227, 229, 233, 236.
Wright, N. T. (Tom), 23-24, 27 n.15, 39, 56, 163 n.4, 224 n.7, 225, 244.

The book is also available through other sellers including:
https://www.amazon.com/God-3D-Finding-Trinity-Fathers/dp/1532681224/

Sunday, 16 February 2020

Where is there evidence of the Trinity in the Bible?


God in 3D: Finding the Trinity in the Bible and the Church Fathers




A little word about my new book on the Trinity
My new book tackles a famous problem of Christian thought: where is there any mention of the Trinity in the Bible? Is the concept of the Trinity in the Bible? Is the doctrine of the Trinity in the Bible? Does it matter if the Trinity is mentioned in the Bible? Is belief in the Trinity important?
And with it, this question: can we understand the Trinity? Is there an easy way to understand the Trinity? How can we help someone who says, "I don't understand the Trinity"? Can we explain the Christian belief in the Trinity?
And what about asking: where did belief in the Trinity come from? What might the first century Christians have thought about it?
Understanding the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit deeper is a very Christian thing to do. And we can bring much neglected knowledge to the question. It’s knowledge that helps us to understand what early Christians thought about it.

From the Bible

This book aims to present the clearest possible information from Scripture, and show that you can understand the Trinity. It presents the historical evidence that belief in a three-in-one God was always a Christian understanding of God, from the first. And their understanding assists ours. It’s very much to do with the Christian idea of being a “temple of the Holy Spirit.”

Their understanding has not been much noticed because Christian apologists and theologians have not been looking in the right place for the origins of belief in the Trinity. Typically, they have been working backwards from the 4th century Nicene Creed, to look for the Trinity using the language of the creed. They have not paid enough attention to the fact that something more ancient, the Hebrew Scriptures, provided the first Christians with different language for God. Earlier Christians saw a definitive three-in-one God about which they wrote. That insight was lost over time: this new book explains how it was lost and how it can be recovered.

This is about an Old Testament type of the Trinity. It is a model of the Trinity that was known to the New Testament authors and the early church fathers but has been largely forgotten. It traces a line from the Old Testament to the New Testament to show how the disciples were primed by Scripture to believe in the Triune God.


From the New Testament

An ancient and simple demonstration of the Trinity goes like this, using the idea of the temple to explain the Trinity. (A temple is a house for a god, where its god can be found living, so to speak.) This is how it is explained:  the temple of the one true God ought to be dwelled in by the one true God and by no-one else. Okay, but then what? Well, standard Christian belief is that the “temple” is the church community. And even individual Christians are temples who say, “My body is a temple of the Holy Spirit.” So if the Church is a temple, what God lives in it?

And here’s the thing: the Church is found to be the dwelling place of God and Christ and Spirit. Three persons in a temple that exists for only one God. It is thus difficult to see how they would not qualify as one God: Father, Son and Spirit in one temple can only be one God. This is their temple to dwell in, and they are its God. Their act of together indwelling the temple of the one true God is thus a demonstration of the Trinity, the three-in-one God of the temple. In the temple of God, we find the triune God.

This argument was taught by numerous church fathers, and you can find their quotes in my book: Cyprian, Ambrose, Augustine, Jerome, Cyril and others. They all knew that argument. This vital information is lacking from many a book on the Trinity, and my new book remedies that.


From the Old Testament

The New Testament was able to develop this idea from a precedent in the Old Testament. Solomon’s temple features a Trinity of God, his Name and his Glory. There we find God in heaven and, in the temple, his double spiritual presence, known as the Name and the Glory.

When it is focussed on this pattern, the New Testament attaches the identity of "the Name" to Jesus, and the identity of "the Glory" to the Holy Spirit, while the identity of God in heaven attaches to the Father. My book gives special prominence to the evidence for this.

So, to see where the Trinity can be found in the Bible, we have to visit Solomon’s temple. The Old Testament type of the Trinity is shown in the divine presence in the Jerusalem temple. We learn of God’s presence in the temple in the words used for it: Name and Glory. “God, his Name and his Glory” are a type of the Trinity, a three-in-one God.

At Solomon’s temple, we learn the unique identity of the Name of God, and of the Glory of God. We learn that God sends his Name and his Glory to dwell in Solomon’s temple. “The Name” is dwelling in Solomon’s temple, while “the Glory” is filling the temple. (The support of scholars for these ideas is all included in the book.)


Buying direct from the publisher: https://wipfandstock.com/god-in-3d.html


From the Old Testament to the New Testament

This lovely picture of the Trinity is shown to be directly carried over into the New Testament with its knowledge of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. The early church made these key connections:

  • connecting the church with the temple
  • Christ with "the Name" that was dwelling in Solomon’s temple
  • and the Holy Spirit with "the Glory" of God that filled Solomon’s temple


It is shown to be no mere coincidence that the Trinity of God, his Name and his Glory parallels the Trinity of God, his Son and Spirit.

In Judaeo-Christian belief, only one true God exists: and indeed God, his Name and his Glory can only ever be one God. This is the simple equation:

God + his Name + his Glory = one God
Now, early Christians pinned the identity of the Name and the Glory on Jesus and the Holy Spirit respectively. The idea of a temple played its part in how this understanding was carried over. The early church understood that Christians are temples of Christ and the Spirit.

Because the church is a temple of the Trinity, these three are one God:

God + his Son + his Spirit = one God

One temple for one God. So that is the Trinity. In the Old Testament: God, his Name and his Glory. In the New Testament: the Father, the Son and the Spirit. It is the same Trinity. This is the parallel we discover:
At Solomon’s temple                                    In the church community
God in heaven hears prayers                      God the Father in heaven hears prayers
The Name dwells in the temple                 Christ dwells in the church
The Glory fills the temple                            The Holy Spirit fills the church


The match is established thoroughly, across multiple points, across Scripture.




What’s different about this book?

God in 3D is the first modern publication to present the evidence for this account of the Trinity in the Bible. Although its development can be traced through the Bible and into the early church, no publication to date has pulled together the elements that enable us to see the Trinity in this fresh light. This nicely supplements recovering what the early church fathers wrote about the Trinity being the three-in-one God of the temple.

My book, then, is about God and his Name and his Glory, as revealed in the Old Testament temple; and about how it is matched to God and his Son and his Spirit as revealed in the New Testament temple.

This book provides what readers increasingly want. If you claim that something is in the Bible nowadays, you ought to be able to place a finger on the page where it is found, to justify that claim. This book does what it says on the tin: it finds the Trinity in Scripture, not ad hoc proof-texting with a verse here about Jesus, and a verse there about the Spirit, but rather by showing that the Trinity is plainly on the page. This is demonstrated in a way that is easy for the reader to understand, remember and teach. Where people have doubts about the Trinity, they tend to want to be able to put their finger on a page of the Bible and say, “I see a three-in-one God there!” This book is ground-breaking, delivering exactly that for readers.

God in 3D avoids the common pitfalls of writing about the Trinity, such as writing off the whole doctrine as beyond understanding, or dubiously proof-texting from a scripture here or there, or blinding the reader with philosophy. This new book demonstrates the Trinity from a survey of the Bible, through the history of the Israelites, the Gospels and the writings of the early church. Through salvation history.

No recourse is made to typical analogies for the Trinity. In older books on the subject of the Trinity, the reader is usually presented with dubious analogies, such as comparing water, ice and steam. This is all avoided.

Unfortunately, such books also tend to argue backwards from the standpoint of defending the fourth century creed. What is more, they tend to weaken their case by asserting that the first Christians had no awareness of being Trinitarian in any way, shape or form. This is also avoided.

In God in 3D, we discover how the disciples were primed by the Old Testament and prepared by Jesus to understand the Triune God in this clear way: as the three-in-one God of the temple.

This avoids treating it as an incomprehensible mystery. It is accessible to the general reader. A non-theological vocabulary will do. The book presents this in layman’s language. The book is suitable for the general reader. The reader does not need a theology degree. It demystifies the doctrine of the Trinity. The book also engages at a scholarly level, but is readable to the non-specialist.

The Christian reader should feel empowered to defend the doctrine of the Trinity with confidence. It is intended that pastors be able to employ the book’s message, so an easy-to-use guide is provided for giving congregations plain teaching on the Trinity. Straightforward sections set out how the Trinity can be taught simply. The ordinary person is provided with an accessible biblical understanding of the Trinity and the pastor is more equipped for teaching about it.

This book has theological, practical and spiritual implications. God in 3D provides a properly integrated view of the work of Christ and the Holy Spirit in the church. It includes chapters devoted to a practical approach to Christian spirituality. It is for Christians who want to connect belief to spiritual practice, with a dedicated section on exploring Trinitarian spirituality, based on the book’s theme. The reader is given a practical way of incorporating Trinitarian thinking into their devotions and their understanding of the faith - the Christian spiritual life is enriched by knowing God, his Name and his Glory, the Holy Trinity.

The second half progresses onto an assessment of the Trinitarian creeds in the light of this book’s message. An understanding of the temple-dwelling Trinity sheds light on the classic church creeds.

In all, the reader will find here a clear scriptural demonstration of the Trinity. This is a joined-up demonstration in both Old and New Testaments. We see how the disciples were primed by Scripture, and prepared by Jesus, to believe in the Trinity in language of their time. And recent scholarship in temple theology and Name theology is included to validate the argument.

Discussion of the Trinity has often been hampered by impenetrable language and out-of-date apologetics, and this book will put something fresh and helpful in people’s hands.




Sunday, 1 December 2019

Book review: "From Reliable Sources: An Introduction to Historical Methods," Howell & Prevenier


This is a review of the academic title From Reliable Sources: An Introduction to Historical Methods, by Martha Howell and Walter Prevenier (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2001).

As it declares on the cover, this very readable academic book is an introduction. It is broadly a history of the craft of writing history. Its review of the writing of history uses examples primarily from the late mediaeval to the modern periods. My area of study is antiquity, but there is much here that is relevant, whether in regard to skills, or the challenges of crafting historiography in the modern era. But it is an introduction, not a handbook, and particularly to western historical methods. I have enjoyed reading it, except for a strange thing that develops which leaves a bad taste in the mouth, and which I will leave till later.

This book, as an introduction, speaks of the most useful techniques that historians use but does not lay them out in the manner of training. It speaks of some of them being scientific, but admits that in application it is more art than science, and explains how historians are reaching across to other disciplines to try to overcome that deficiency. Although it talks of historians using ever more sophisticated techniques, reading this book will not leave you ready to apply them yourself. Rather, it outlines things, and gives examples to illustrate how the writing of history has changed over the millennia, with changing worldviews and techniques, and how it has changed rapidly in the modern era, especially post-Karl Marx (more on how his work is pivotal in western academia in a moment).

Our authors' - Howell and Prevenier - style of arguing is often to set up premises and knock them down. Thus: “the historian’s basic task is to choose reliable sources, to read them reliably, and to put them together in ways that provide reliable narratives about the past” – but “reliability is a stubbornly elusive goal” (page 2). This develops into a deep sense of futility by the end, with a few crumbs of optimism offered, such as that “useful knowledge about the past” is obtainable, but not a true picture of ‘what really occurred’ in the events of the past. It leans towards minimalism: critically reading the work of an ancient historian reveals the picture of reality that the ancient one is weaving, but not an actual reality beyond it (because, basically, we weren’t there to witness it ourselves). Past historians thought otherwise about the usefulness of writing history, and were naïve to do so, apparently. In the modern crisis, historical documentary sources are interrogated, not trusted; the key questions being, why did that ancient person write such and such, and why did people preserve it? A testimony may have useful content, but a modern historian may be more interested to ask for what motives the testimony exists, wary that we can’t do much better than that. I am wary that one seems to see that maxim applied inconsistently by historians: some modern social history more or less relies on the testimony of minority voices being heard in their own terms, and this poses a question of the interrogation of testimony of minorities by historians, a problem that this book does not venture to discuss. It opens a door that the authors may not want to open: is what's good for the goose good for the gander? You won't find the answer to that here. (When this book was published, critical theory - and its idea that social justice requires the relative privileging and protection of certain voices - was only in its infancy, and so this book does not directly address the question of how this could affect historical investigation more broadly.)

We are to be self-aware of our own biases. This means of course that we should also be sensitive to Howell and Prevenier’s biases: the historian creates narratives with meanings and that applies to their own narrative about the history of history. Their biases gradually become apparent.

Their book takes us through advances and failings in historiography through the ages, through antiquity, the mediaeval, Renaissance, Enlightenment, Romantic, and multiple post-Marx phases.

Highlights of chapter one include helpful and concise definitions of different kinds of historical source materials, and kinds of preservation, summary explanations of why some documents are preserved and available, and others not. Its summary of why so much from the ancient period is lost is particularly helpful (37-39). Its explanations of the changes in history-writing from one era to the next are commendably concise.

Chapter two opens the historian’s toolbox to examine the properties of palaeography and archaeology, the growing role of statistics due to input from other academic disciples, and a wide number of other tools. There are plenty of cautions about over-simplifying their use too. There is also an appraisal of source criticism, that it still has its uses despite its weaknesses; and this includes a helpful list of factors that historians use in evaluating how much to depend on this or that source.

Chapter three covers “traditional basics” for interpreting the past – strategies hailing from the nineteenth century onwards – whereas Chapter four brings us up to historiography in the modern era. Chapter four especially factors in the difference made from cross-disciplinary input, particularly from the social sciences, in terms of insights and methods. This is not only about gaining more scientific methods but also about new worldviews. On the outside, it’s the abandonment of old certainties in regard to what we can know about the past. On the inside, well, let me take you there: “no historian after Marx escaped his influence.” Not so much his views on human agency or his economic critiques, but his theories on class, on how social change can happen. This helped enable the rise of social history as different to the histories of great men. Naming historians whose work embodies sequences of evolutions in thought, our authors introduce us to ideas about seeing societies as whole structures; collective consciousness; the idea that “Social facts are those ways of acting, thinking, and feeling which exist outside the consciousness of the individual and which have enormous coercive power” (92). We visit the discredited positivism of trying to treat the historian’s craft like a laboratory science. Also, we touch on tools derived from Freud, Jung and Eriksen “to discover the anxieties of an age” (95). All this is hedged in with the doubt that human life is too complex for over-conceptualisation of rules and systems to work. But it is notable that, in the authors’ view, essential to the development of modern historiography is both the legacy of those pioneers of psychology, and also the academic descendants of Marxist thinking. These different streams speak to each other. This steers modern historiography away from religious or political conservatism (with a small ‘c’), for better or worse. The authors never claims that these tools are neutral, but it’s worth noting in order to better understand more of what follows.

Staying with social sciences, the authors tell us that “historians of more recent generations owe their most direct debts to anthropology” (97). This did, early on, lead to gross errors of judgment, judging peoples in over-simplified and anachronistic terms that fostered imperialism and racism, leading to a sense of guilt in western academia, followed by the epistemological crisis that has gripped historiography. In its wake, we have seen the rise of two things in particular:

  • structuralism (the big idea “that “systems” precede and structure experience”; such that we and our knowledge are products of experiences in a matrix of structural forces almost beyond our control [105]; and such thinking encompasses, for example, “Marxian sociology”);
  • and post-structuralism (doubting that there is any stability in what signs signify, and conceding that language gets in the way of knowing reality, and the text gets in the way of knowing “truth”, such that we don’t know what’s the story and what’s the telling of the story).
    • One impact of post-structuralism is that it is undermining confidence in interpreting language and texts in history departments and across the humanities. As a result, the skills required to read texts critically have increased in range. The rise of semiotics and the idea of “signs” to be decoded, is followed by loss of confidence in the same, and all of which is now usurping the old confidence in a ‘common sense’ approach of relating 'words' to 'things' which is how people of the past had thought was how language was functioning. Of course, these remain contested philosophies that are never static as the moving targets of academic thinking. 

In the face of this twin onslaught, the Enlightenment’s stable idea of the “person” collapses, and people are basically whatever the crossfire of life makes. Critics of novels become, for example, more interested in the structure of a novel than in the stories it seems to tell; and it’s the same with historical investigation into the sources we find.

Some historians – and other academics - have fought back and tried to do ‘common sense’ history, but the balance of power in academia, pursuing the course I have described, is unconvinced by the attempt to do so. (For a sense of what 'common sense' methods have been in the past, see Chapter three, which captures the good, the bad and the ugly of it. As to what a 'common sense' approach would be today, the authors don't say, but this book isn't necessarily the place for that.) We are in the realm of “discourse” now, where our knowledge is really our own experience of “systems of speech, thought, and action” (108). The old certainties are gone, and out of the melting pot of uncertainty, people produce new “systems of speech, thought, and action”. So, it becomes possible to recognise that “facts” are potentially something we can create, and thus new categories come into being for “homosexuality… depression… genius” as new social facts (108), and even the idea of “popular culture” as a new social fact (112). We can speak facts into being and re-make the world. Put in those terms, there is something very ancient as well as modern about this posture, as if the academic becomes a magician creating reality with spells. I'll come back to that.  

Those academics who want to write about the past with some reasonable degree of a stable narrative can’t throw up their hands in despair, and “while we can never isolate a definitive truth of any text, we can discern its relative location in the consensus reached by the largest body of competent readers.” It seems to me that the danger here is that the academy, in supposedly denying access to truth, in a strange way becomes the gatekeeper of realities, with special access that those who are less 'competent' inevitably lack (although the authors push back against that caricature). It’s the rise of the new intellectuals, so to speak, and they are re-making the world.

We come to the non-neutral politics of modern history writing. And at more or less the same time to the democritisation of it, achieved by widening access to the academy. The historian makes a virtue of not pretending to be neutral or impossibly objective, and has a standpoint instead. So, we have a more politically engaged historian, and the more standpoints the merrier, where this represents previously under-represented social groups. In light of Marx’s theories about how societies can change, social history becomes interested in how ordinary people – of various backgrounds - change culture: this becomes an important argument of historical research.

Which historians brought this into being? “Most important of these was the so-called new left, a largely unorganized group of historians who, after World War II, adopted and revised Marxist theory to found new kinds of progressive history” (112). Now, in a new sense, there was room for “women’s history” written by and about and not least for women (and many of the writers have been feminists); also “lesbian and gay history” (note not “LGBT” history in this 2001 book); “African American history” (the book was published in the United States); and “Ethnic history”. These can all be described as “the new social history” featuring “close observation of small details, careful listening to every voice, every nuance of phrase” (115).

With these things comes a shift. We are no longer structuralists putting people into categories they didn’t choose for themselves. As to our method, people of the past must be understood in categories that they chose for themselves, assuming that we can see their world from their point of view: that is, “the subjective and objective strategies by which they apprehended and manipulated family, community, political parties, and networks of clients”; and this method has been “widely adopted” (116). The rituals of everyday life come under close scrutiny. And, guess what? Narrative and storytelling make a comeback, which helps to reveal how cultural rituals play a part in people’s lives.

This is not exactly post-structuralism in the broad terms I spoke of above. Allowing voices to be heard means to a degree trusting their testimony. We arrive at a major shift of emphasis “from structure to culture”. For culture can be an instrument of change and a means to understand change. We can note, for example, how the English working class made their own history, because class itself was a cultural product “made by men out of the materials of their lives”; so, taking control of their own history was possible (116-17). We are within a strain of “marxist perspective”. This is not about writing “neutral” history. This is mapping out the levers of change for understanding the past with a view to future use.

In this train, historians have asked “what made “women” women”; and have had “methods of analysis… that allowed direct scrutiny of how gender is created, experienced, and changed” (117). And historians have generally become more aware of their own role in putting together the world that they tell us about. And “culture” is key.

We thus have an view of what has provided “the turn to narrative and fueled interest in cultural history; it helped create what is now generally called “cultural Marxism,” in which a culture is seen not as a reflection or even as a “semi-autonomous” system but as an agent in historical development.” It’s noticeable that these historians did not in 2001 treat the term “cultural Marxism” with a sense of the toxicity that it has today, where it is used as a term of abuse towards outworkings of critical theory.

Chapter five follows on with reflections about historical knowledge. It pauses to consider the optimistic “teleology” of Augustine’s Christian view in which history is the playing out of God’s plans for the world; and notes “the marxist theory of history is, in its strict form, teleological as well, for it conceives of history as an inevitable progression toward communism” (120). The contrived ideas of historical periods as mediaeval and modern come in for criticism as historians’ self-serving categories created to justify ideas such as history being a story of ‘progress’ towards the Renaissance and Enlightenment.

Such happen to be Eurocentric categories whose claim to progress has been undone by twentieth century pessimism over humanity’s self-destructive tendencies, which have played out on a global scale; and undone by the realisation that so much of human nature does not actually change over time.

Events have causes, but these can be complex; and historians, helped by other sciences, are taking a wider view of how one thing is possibly the cause of another, if it's even possible to be sure about this. For example, in the flow of twentieth century pessimism, new attention falls upon the role of natural ecology and climate as one cause of change in human history. (Bad harvests make bad news and can have society-changing consequences, for example.)

As to historians' big ideas about the direction of change, the authors talk not only of teleological change but also, by way of comparison, cyclical change, slow change, fast change, and so on. But it becomes the job of the historian to propose the reasons why this or that change happened, not just to accept a system of thought or the word of voices from the past. The authors make it clear that they want historians to carefully consider what they mean by “cause”, as there is an untapped philosophy to this matter. With the right tools, it should be possible to conclude that some events, “aligned with certain conditions” cause other events, but this is not an easy kind of judgment to make (131).

Amongst causes of change, the authors pass quickly over religion (rather rashly assuming that Saddam Hussein and George Bush appealed to “the same God,” which would be surprising news to any Muslim if this meant that their God is Father, Son and Holy Spirit!). The authors have rather more to say about “Karl Marx’s theory of causality … probably the most influential single body of work concerning socioeconomic factors and historical change,” including the notion of “class war” as a key example of a tension internal to the social system (132). Here, the authors’ biases seem to come to the surface in a surprising way: “feudalism collapsed because the nobility lost power to a rising bourgeoisie… Capitalism will, in turn, collapse when the bourgeoisie can no longer extract enough surplus from the labor of the proletariat to sustain economic growth” (133). Although they are setting out Marx’s position, it doesn’t feel like they are necessarily distancing themselves from it.

Moving on to “biology and race” in the discussion of change-causing factors, there is brief comment about how “race” became a historical category in the wake of the misuses that flowed from Enlightenment ideals, Social Darwinism, and imperialism. I’ll have to skip over much here, but pause to note the difficulty in defining social “power”, and also attention now given to the power of rumours – useful definitions and explanations are found here.

There is brief but useful discussion of the fact that an individual can cause change, albeit within systems that enable their control, such as “class interests”. This complicates reading of texts in determining cause. For this and other reasons, it becomes important to look at how a text was received in its time of origin, not merely looking at a text’s structure or content. Reception history is thus a growing field.

We also remain aware of post-structuralist thought, to assist in both understanding a society’s status quo and understanding change. Thus,

“ideology is almost unconscious … a system of values that inform action … about what is “natural” and “given” and what, in contrast, is “changeable” or “man-made.” In this sense, ideology is a product of culture … Modern scholars have helped some of us see that fixed categories of gender are also ideological constructions, that in fact there is no coherent, stable “woman” or “man” in human history, that any culture’s “woman” or “man” is an ideological product” (147).

As that quote hints, that remains a controversial view.

Signing off with some optimism about historiography, ‘”objectivity” is not possible, but [historians] would insist that historical study can, nevertheless, yield useful information.’ Albeit reading history from the standpoint of the reader’s position in the world (148). But “we have to settle for studying the reality that sources construct rather than “reality” itself” (149). The authors step back from the caricature of modern historians as magicians able to reveal hidden truths, although it seems to me that post-structuralism is at times vulnerable to that charge. Future history writing, as it were, still has to consider whether it can find a better way, and various forces will inevitably vie to be the prevailing historiography of tomorrow.

After reading this book, it's clarified my sense of a growing dichotomy, in historiography. Going further than the book does, here are some of my forward-looking reflections about the state of historiography in the academy. On the one hand, there is the pessimistic minimalism of only being able to get useful information about the past but not an account of what actually occurred in the past. This attitude has a curious parallel amongst young people with the advantage of smart phone. I note a recent trend where any unusual claim among them on social media receives the response "Pics, or it didn't happen!" No photo, no credibility. Whereas on the other hand, there is the journalists' dictum "trust but verify." 

To assist understanding of the impact of the minimalist way of thinking, I will give my own illustration (not from their book). The first century Jewish writers Philo and Josephus both state more or less that in their own days there was universal education for Jewish children so that they could read Hebrew sacred scripture. These remarkable statements have in the past served as enough “evidence” to convince many readers. After all, these two would know, and naturally they offer an explanation ... More recent scholarship, however, treats these statements not as evidence but as claims. Against Philo and Josephus’ claims in this regard, scholars are cautious because these claims would be contrary to high levels of illiteracy most everywhere else in the ancient world; and so scholars want evidence on the ground, which is lacking. Therefore many scholars today do not accept Philo and Josephus’ claims here. Instead they think this is probably an example of ancient propaganda to give the outside world the impression that Jewish education was as at least as sophisticated as that of Greco-Roman elites. This would be an example of the strict tough standards of modern historiography, especially towards claims that are contrary to analogous norms: “pics, or it didn’t happen” in the modern idiom. But it is notably different from the idea promoted by some critical theory to privilege some voices.

That is, the method of historiography that has grown around once neglected voices of the disadvantaged. So it's possible to do a history that "trusts" the "lived experience" of a woman's voice, a native American voice, and so on. In recent developments in application of critical theory, a deep division seems to be appearing between those who think minority voices should be heard and not questioned by the "establishment"; and in such historiography the journalist's "trust but verify" could be reduced merely to "trust" - the uncritical and somewhat romantic idea of "letting voices from the past speak for themselves" as some might put it. 

Two methods that are not easily reconciled. This "trust" of testimony does not necessarily sit well with the minimalism of obtaining mere "information" from a past that is basically inaccessible. Anyway, those are some thoughts of mine on future problems that the book does not seem to spot as a potential dichotomy.

From Reliable Sources is a book I would recommend, so long as it is not the only introduction to historiography that one reads. I hope I have given a sense of some ways in which it is useful. As it majors on the trajectory taken by western historiography in light of Karl Marx's influence, it would be interesting to speculate about how the writing of history in the twentieth century might have taken a different course had his influence not been there, but that would be a different book. 

Finally, I want to note something that I found a little odd in the book. There is a constellation of mentions of Jews and one feels compelled to question potential bias in the authors’ selection – you can talk about these things, but why this constellation in this book?

  • “Israel’s role … in the massacre in the Palestinian camps in Sabra and Shatilla in Beirut” (72)
  • “Exactly how many people died in the Nazi concentration camps, and how many among them were Jews? No numerical example given to a question like this, no matter how plausible, can ever be absolutely proved.” (80)
  • “Once again, the case of Israeli’s [sic] role in the 1982 attack on the refugee camps in Beirut” (74)
  • “[concentration] camps where certain Jews assisted in the exterminations in exchange for their own lives” (83)
  • “… argued that religion was not the dominant mover in capitalism, putting his emphasis instead on the psychological need for achievement that minorities feel (in the case he studied, Jews in western Europe)” (91) – implying that Jews are a prime mover in capitalism
  • “A notorious example [of a rumor] … The story was that Jewish shopkeepers in Orleans were luring girls to work as shop assistants and then selling them off into prostitution. in fact, no girls were ever reported missing. Like this rumour, all rumors work best when they build upon already existing suspicions or fears.” (140) [emphasis added] The authors hardly explain why these should be existing suspicions or fears of Jews.
This is not wholly representative. There are positive statements about Jewish people too. But I’m sure I won’t be the only one who will find this constellation of tropes disconcerting, the role of Jews in the rise of capitalism, Jews helping to kill Jews in the holocaust, Israeli atrocities, etc etc. Given everything that the authors have told us about how historians create their own realities, how are we to take this? Is it an unfortunate co-incidence that a book with a deep interest in post-Marx readings also has what could be taken as a selection of anti-semitic tropes (in light of concerns about these two being married in some contemporary trends)? But it is not wholly negative about Jewish people, and perhaps I should give the benefit of the doubt to the authors.

And that is not to take away from the many valuable features of this book, and the history student can certainly benefit from reading it closely, albeit with the caution required in reading the work of historians, to detect their biases and our own, just as the authors tell us to do.

Sunday, 10 November 2019

Is Mark's Gospel non-stop miracles?



I have heard, so I'm surely not the only one, that Mark's Gospel moves basically from miracle to miracle, and if you remove all of the miracles, there is virtually nothing left. So I thought, why not test that?


Now Mark is a good choice for this question: most scholars think it is the earliest gospel; it is the shortest canonical gospel; it is reputed to be sourced from an eyewitness - Peter. So it gets a great deal of attention. All I'm going to deal with here is my basic question: is Mark's Gospel non-stop miracles?


To answer that, below I'm reproducing the whole of Mark's Gospel in the copyright-free ASV version. Clearly miraculous stuff I have pit a line through, like this. Non-miraculous stuff I have highlighted in yellow. It's clearly mostly non-miraculous stuff which comfortably fits the historical setting it's in: first century Galilee and Judea. You may feel here and there that I should have either added or deleted a little bit more context surrounding miracles - it makes little difference to the overall impression though: most of Mark's Gospel is non-miraculous. I have highlighted Jesus' discourse on the end times in blue - there are no miracles actually happening in it, but it is prophetic to some degree or other that would be much more open to debate, so I'm highlighting it in a separate colour. So, here, see for yourself.




Mark’s Gospel, ASV translation

Chapter 1


1:1The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God. 1:2Even as it is written in Isaiah the prophet, Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, Who shall prepare thy way. 1:3The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make ye ready the way of the Lord, Make his paths straight; 1:4John came, who baptized in the wilderness and preached the baptism of repentance unto remission of sins. 1:5And there went out unto him all the country of Judaea, and all they of Jerusalem; And they were baptized of him in the river Jordan, confessing their sins. 1:6And John was clothed with camel's hair, and had a leathern girdle about his loins, and did eat locusts and wild honey. 1:7And he preached, saying, There cometh after me he that is mightier than I, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to stoop down and unloose. 1:8I baptized you in water; But he shall baptize you in the Holy Spirit. 1:9And it came to pass in those days, that Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee, and was baptized of John in the Jordan. 1:10And straightway coming up out of the water, he saw the heavens rent asunder, and the Spirit as a dove descending upon him: 1:11And a voice came out of the heavens, Thou art my beloved Son, in thee I am well pleased. 1:12And straightway the Spirit driveth him forth into the wilderness. 1:13And he was in the wilderness forty days tempted of Satan; And he was with the wild beasts; And the angels ministered unto him. 1:14Now after John was delivered up, Jesus came into Galilee, preaching the gospel of God, 1:15and saying, The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand: repent ye, and believe in the gospel. 1:16And passing along by the sea of Galilee, he saw Simon and Andrew the brother of Simon casting a net in the sea; for they were fishers. 1:17And Jesus said unto them, Come ye after me, and I will make you to become fishers of men. 1:18And straightway they left the nets, and followed him. 1:19And going on a little further, he saw James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, who also were in the boat mending the nets. 1:20And straightway he called them: and they left their father Zebedee in the boat with the hired servants, and went after him. 1:21And they go into Capernaum; and straightway on the sabbath day he entered into the synagogue and taught. 1:22And they were astonished at his teaching: For he taught them as having authority, and not as the scribes. 1:23And straightway there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit; and he cried out, 1:24saying, What have we to do with thee, Jesus thou Nazarene? art thou come to destroy us? I know thee who thou art, the Holy One of God. 1:25And Jesus rebuked him, saying, Hold thy peace, and come out of him. 1:26And the unclean spirit, tearing him and crying with a loud voice, came out of him. 1:27And they were all amazed, insomuch that they questioned among themselves, saying, What is this? a new teaching! with authority he commandeth even the unclean spirits, and they obey him. 1:28And the report of him went out straightway everywhere into all the region of Galilee round about. 1:29And straightway, when they were come out of the synagogue, they came into the house of Simon and Andrew, with James and John. 1:30Now Simon's wife's mother lay sick of a fever; and straightway they tell him of her: 1:31and he came and took her by the hand, and raised her up; and the fever left her, and she ministered unto them. 1:32And at even, when the sun did set, they brought unto him all that were sick, and them that were possessed with demons. 1:33And all the city was gathered together at the door. 1:34And he healed many that were sick with divers diseases, and cast out many demons; and he suffered not the demons to speak, because they knew him. 1:35And in the morning, a great while before day, he rose up and went out, and departed into a desert place, and there prayed. 1:36And Simon and they that were with him followed after him; 1:37and they found him, and say unto him, All are seeking thee. 1:38And he saith unto them, Let us go elsewhere into the next towns, that I may preach there also; for to this end came I forth. 1:39And he went into their synagogues throughout all Galilee, preaching and casting out demons. 1:40And there cometh to him a leper, beseeching him, and kneeling down to him, and saying unto him, If thou wilt, thou canst make me clean. 1:41And being moved with compassion, he stretched forth his hand, and touched him, and saith unto him, I will; be thou made clean. 1:42And straightway the leprosy departed from him, and he was made clean. 1:43And he strictly charged him, and straightway sent him out, 1:44and saith unto him, See thou say nothing to any man: but go show thyself to the priest, and offer for thy cleansing the things which Moses commanded, for a testimony unto them. 1:45But he went out, and began to publish it much, and to spread abroad the matter, insomuch that Jesus could no more openly enter into a city, but was without in desert places: and they came to him from every quarter.


Chapter 2


2:1And when he entered again into Capernaum after some days, it was noised that he was in the house. 2:2And many were gathered together, so that there was no longer room for them, no, not even about the door: and he spake the word unto them. 2:3And they come, bringing unto him a man sick of the palsy, borne of four. 2:4And when they could not come nigh unto him for the crowd, they uncovered the roof where he was: and when they had broken it up, they let down the bed whereon the sick of the palsy lay. 2:5And Jesus seeing their faith saith unto the sick of the palsy, Son, thy sins are forgiven. 2:6But there were certain of the scribes sitting there, and reasoning in their hearts, 2:7Why doth this man thus speak? he blasphemeth: who can forgive sins but one, even God? 2:8And straightway Jesus, perceiving in his spirit that they so reasoned within themselves, saith unto them, Why reason ye these things in your hearts? 2:9Which is easier, to say to the sick of the palsy, Thy sins are forgiven; or to say, Arise, and take up thy bed, and walk? 2:10But that ye may know that the Son of man hath authority on earth to forgive sins (he saith to the sick of the palsy), 2:11I say unto thee, Arise, take up thy bed, and go unto thy house. 2:12And he arose, and straightway took up the bed, and went forth before them all; insomuch that they were all amazed, and glorified God, saying, We never saw it on this fashion. 2:13And he went forth again by the sea side; and all the multitude resorted unto him, and he taught them. 2:14And as he passed by, he saw Levi the son of Alphaeus sitting at the place of toll, and he saith unto him, Follow me. And he arose and followed him. 2:15And it came to pass, that he was sitting at meat in his house, and many publicans and sinners sat down with Jesus and his disciples: for there were many, and they followed him. 2:16And the scribes of the Pharisees, when they saw that he was eating with the sinners and publicans, said unto his disciples, How is it that he eateth and drinketh with publicans and sinners? 2:17And when Jesus heard it, he saith unto them, They that are whole have no need of a physician, but they that are sick: I came not to call the righteous, but sinners. 2:18And John's disciples and the Pharisees were fasting: and they come and say unto him, Why do John's disciples and the disciples of the Pharisees fast, but thy disciples fast not? 2:19And Jesus said unto them, Can the sons of the bridechamber fast, while the bridegroom is with them? as long as they have the bridegroom with them, they cannot fast. 2:20But the days will come, when the bridegroom shall be taken away from them, and then will they fast in that day. 2:21No man seweth a piece of undressed cloth on an old garment: else that which should fill it up taketh from it, the new from the old, and a worse rent is made. 2:22And no man putteth new wine into old wineskins; else the wine will burst the skins, and the wine perisheth, and the skins: but they put new wine into fresh wine-skins. 2:23And it came to pass, that he was going on the sabbath day through the grainfields; and his disciples began, as they went, to pluck the ears. 2:24And the Pharisees said unto him, Behold, why do they on the sabbath day that which is not lawful? 2:25And he said unto them, Did ye never read what David did, when he had need, and was hungry, he, and they that were with him? 2:26How he entered into the house of God when Abiathar was high priest, and ate the showbread, which it is not lawful to eat save for the priests, and gave also to them that were with him? 2:27And he said unto them, The sabbath was made for man, and not man for the sabbath: 2:28so that the Son of man is lord even of the sabbath.




3:1And he entered again into the synagogue; and there was a man there who had his hand withered. 3:2And they watched him, whether he would heal him on the sabbath day; that they might accuse him. 3:3And he saith unto the man that had his hand withered, Stand forth. 3:4And he saith unto them, Is it lawful on the sabbath day to do good, or to do harm? to save a life, or to kill? But they held their peace. 3:5And when he had looked round about on them with anger, being grieved at the hardening of their heart, he saith unto the man, Stretch forth thy hand. And he stretched it forth; and his hand was restored. 3:6And the Pharisees went out, and straightway with the Herodians took counsel against him, how they might destroy him. 3:7And Jesus with his disciples withdrew to the sea: and a great multitude from Galilee followed; and from Judaea, 3:8and from Jerusalem, and from Idumaea, and beyond the Jordan, and about Tyre and Sidon, a great multitude, hearing what great things he did, came unto him. 3:9And he spake to his disciples, that a little boat should wait on him because of the crowd, lest they should throng him: 3:10for he had healed many; insomuch that as many as had plagues pressed upon him that they might touch him. 3:11And the unclean spirits, whensoever they beheld him, fell down before him, and cried, saying, Thou art the Son of God. 3:12And he charged them much that they should not make him known. 3:13And he goeth up into the mountain, and calleth unto him whom he himself would; and they went unto him. 3:14And he appointed twelve, that they might be with him, and that he might send them forth to preach, 3:15and to have authority to cast out demons: 3:16and Simon he surnamed Peter; 3:17and James the son of Zebedee, and John the brother of James; and them he surnamed Boanerges, which is, Sons of thunder: 3:18and Andrew, and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, and Thomas, and James the son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus, and Simon the Cananaean, 3:19and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him. And he cometh into a house. 3:20And the multitude cometh together again, so that they could not so much as eat bread. 3:21And when his friends heard it, they went out to lay hold on him: for they said, He is beside himself. 3:22And the scribes that came down from Jerusalem said, He hath Beelzebub, and, By the prince of the demons casteth he out the demons. 3:23And he called them unto him, and said unto them in parables, How can Satan cast out Satan? 3:24And if a kingdom be divided against itself, that kingdom cannot stand. 3:25And if a house be divided against itself, that house will not be able to stand. 3:26And if Satan hath rise up against himself, and is divided, he cannot stand, but hath an end. 3:27But no one can enter into the house of the strong man, and spoil his goods, except he first bind the strong man; and then he will spoil his house. 3:28Verily I say unto you, All their sins shall be forgiven unto the sons of men, and their blasphemies wherewith soever they shall blaspheme: 3:29but whosoever shall blaspheme against the Holy Spirit hath never forgiveness, but is guilty of an eternal sin: 3:30because they said, He hath an unclean spirit. 3:31And there come his mother and his brethren; and, standing without, they sent unto him, calling him. 3:32And a multitude was sitting about him; and they say unto him, Behold, thy mother and thy brethren without seek for thee. 3:33And he answereth them, and saith, Who is my mother and my brethren? 3:34And looking round on them that sat round about him, he saith, Behold, my mother and my brethren! 3:35For whosoever shall do the will of God, the same is my brother, and sister, and mother.


Chapter 4


4:1And again he began to teach by the sea side. And there is gathered unto him a very great multitude, so that he entered into a boat, and sat in the sea; and all the multitude were by the sea on the land. 4:2And he taught them many things in parables, and said unto them in his teaching, 4:3Hearken: Behold, the sower went forth to sow: 4:4and it came to pass, as he sowed, some seed fell by the way side, and the birds came and devoured it. 4:5And other fell on the rocky ground, where it had not much earth; and straightway it sprang up, because it had no deepness of earth: 4:6and when the sun was risen, it was scorched; and because it had no root, it withered away. 4:7And other fell among the thorns, and the thorns grew up, and choked it, and it yielded no fruit. 4:8And others fell into the good ground, and yielded fruit, growing up and increasing; and brought forth, thirtyfold, and sixtyfold, and a hundredfold. 4:9And he said, Who hath ears to hear, let him hear. 4:10And when he was alone, they that were about him with the twelve asked of him the parables. 4:11And he said unto them, Unto you is given the mystery of the kingdom of God: but unto them that are without, all things are done in parables: 4:12that seeing they may see, and not perceive; and hearing they may hear, and not understand; lest haply they should turn again, and it should be forgiven them. 4:13And he saith unto them, Know ye not this parable? and how shall ye know all the parables? 4:14The sower soweth the word. 4:15And these are they by the way side, where the word is sown; and when they have heard, straightway cometh Satan, and taketh away the word which hath been sown in them. 4:16And these in like manner are they that are sown upon the rocky places, who, when they have heard the word, straightway receive it with joy; 4:17and they have no root in themselves, but endure for a while; then, when tribulation or persecution ariseth because of the word, straightway they stumble. 4:18And others are they that are sown among the thorns; these are they that have heard the word, 4:19and the cares of the world, and the deceitfulness of riches, and the lusts of other things entering in, choke the word, and it becometh unfruitful. 4:20And those are they that were sown upon the good ground; such as hear the word, and accept it, and bear fruit, thirtyfold, and sixtyfold, and a hundredfold. 4:21And he said unto them, Is the lamp brought to be put under the bushel, or under the bed, and not to be put on the stand? 4:22For there is nothing hid, save that it should be manifested; neither was anything made secret, but that it should come to light. 4:23If any man hath ears to hear, let him hear. 4:24And he said unto them, Take heed what ye hear: with what measure ye mete it shall be measured unto you; and more shall be given unto you. 4:25For he that hath, to him shall be given: and he that hath not, from him shall be taken away even that which he hath. 4:26And he said, So is the kingdom of God, as if a man should cast seed upon the earth; 4:27and should sleep and rise night and day, and the seed should spring up and grow, he knoweth not how. 4:28The earth beareth fruit of herself; first the blade, then the ear, then the full grain in the ear. 4:29But when the fruit is ripe, straightway he putteth forth the sickle, because the harvest is come. 4:30And he said, How shall we liken the kingdom of God? or in what parable shall we set it forth? 4:31It is like a grain of mustard seed, which, when it is sown upon the earth, though it be less than all the seeds that are upon the earth, 4:32yet when it is sown, groweth up, and becometh greater than all the herbs, and putteth out great branches; so that the birds of the heaven can lodge under the shadow thereof. 4:33And with many such parables spake he the word unto them, as they were able to hear it; 4:34and without a parable spake he not unto them: but privately to his own disciples he expounded all things. 4:35And on that day, when even was come, he saith unto them, Let us go over unto the other side. 4:36And leaving the multitude, they take him with them, even as he was, in the boat. And other boats were with him. 4:37And there ariseth a great storm of wind, and the waves beat into the boat, insomuch that the boat was now filling. 4:38And he himself was in the stern, asleep on the cushion: and they awake him, and say unto him, Teacher, carest thou not that we perish? 4:39And he awoke, and rebuked the wind, and said unto the sea, Peace, be still. And the wind ceased, and there was a great calm. 4:40And he said unto them, Why are ye fearful? have ye not yet faith? 4:41And they feared exceedingly, and said one to another, Who then is this, that even the wind and the sea obey him?


Chapter 5


5:1And they came to the other side of the sea, into the country of the Gerasenes. 5:2And when he was come out of the boat, straightway there met him out of the tombs a man with an unclean spirit, 5:3who had his dwelling in the tombs: and no man could any more bind him, no, not with a chain; 5:4because that he had been often bound with fetters and chains, and the chains had been rent asunder by him, and the fetters broken in pieces: and no man had strength to tame him. 5:5And always, night and day, in the tombs and in the mountains, he was crying out, and cutting himself with stones. 5:6And when he saw Jesus from afar, he ran and worshipped him; 5:7and crying out with a loud voice, he saith, What have I to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son of the Most High God? I adjure thee by God, torment me not. 5:8For he said unto him, Come forth, thou unclean spirit, out of the man. 5:9And he asked him, What is thy name? And he saith unto him, My name is Legion; for we are many. 5:10And he besought him much that he would not send them away out of the country. 5:11Now there was there on the mountain side a great herd of swine feeding. 5:12And they besought him, saying, Send us into the swine, that we may enter into them. 5:13And he gave them leave. And the unclean spirits came out, and entered into the swine: and the herd rushed down the steep into the sea, in number about two thousand; and they were drowned in the sea. 5:14And they that fed them fled, and told it in the city, and in the country. And they came to see what it was that had come to pass. 5:15And they come to Jesus, and behold him that was possessed with demons sitting, clothed and in his right mind, even him that had the legion: and they were afraid. 5:16And they that saw it declared unto them how it befell him that was possessed with demons, and concerning the swine. 5:17And they began to beseech him to depart from their borders. 5:18And as he was entering into the boat, he that had been possessed with demons besought him that he might be with him. 5:19And he suffered him not, but saith unto him, Go to thy house unto thy friends, and tell them how great things the Lord hath done for thee, and how he had mercy on thee. 5:20And he went his way, and began to publish in Decapolis how great things Jesus had done for him: and all men marvelled. 5:21And when Jesus had crossed over again in the boat unto the other side, a great multitude was gathered unto him; and he was by the sea. 5:22And there cometh one of the rulers of the synagogue, Jairus by name; and seeing him, he falleth at his feet, 5:23and beseecheth him much, saying, My little daughter is at the point of death: I pray thee, that thou come and lay thy hands on her, that she may be made whole, and live. 5:24And he went with him; and a great multitude followed him, and they thronged him. 5:25And a woman, who had an issue of blood twelve years, 5:26and had suffered many things of many physicians, and had spent all that she had, and was nothing bettered, but rather grew worse, 5:27having heard the things concerning Jesus, came in the crowd behind, and touched his garment. 5:28For she said, If I touch but his garments, I shall be made whole. 5:29And straightway the fountain of her blood was dried up; and she felt in her body that she was healed of her plague. 5:30And straightway Jesus, perceiving in himself that the power proceeding from him had gone forth, turned him about in the crowd, and said, Who touched my garments? 5:31And his disciples said unto him, Thou seest the multitude thronging thee, and sayest thou, Who touched me? 5:32And he looked round about to see her that had done this thing. 5:33But the woman fearing and trembling, knowing what had been done to her, came and fell down before him, and told him all the truth. 5:34And he said unto her, Daughter, thy faith hath made thee whole; go in peace, and be whole of thy plague. 5:35While he yet spake, they come from the ruler of the synagogue's house saying, Thy daughter is dead: why troublest thou the Teacher any further? 5:36But Jesus, not heeding the word spoken, saith unto the ruler of the synagogue, Fear not, only believe. 5:37And he suffered no man to follow with him, save Peter, and James, and John the brother of James. 5:38And they come to the house of the ruler of the synagogue; and he beholdeth a tumult, and many weeping and wailing greatly. 5:39And when he was entered in, he saith unto them, Why make ye a tumult, and weep? the child is not dead, but sleepeth. 5:40And they laughed him to scorn. But he, having put them all forth, taketh the father of the child and her mother and them that were with him, and goeth in where the child was. 5:41And taking the child by the hand, he saith unto her, Talitha cumi; which is, being interpreted, Damsel, I say unto thee, Arise. 5:42And straightway the damsel rose up, and walked; for she was twelve years old. And they were amazed straightway with a great amazement. 5:43And he charged them much that no man should know this: and he commanded that something should be given her to eat.


Chapter 6


6:1And he went out from thence; and he cometh into his own country; and his disciples follow him. 6:2And when the sabbath was come, he began to teach in the synagogue: and many hearing him were astonished, saying, Whence hath this man these things? and, What is the wisdom that is given unto this man, and what mean such mighty works wrought by his hands? 6:3Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary, and brother of James, and Joses, and Judas, and Simon? and are not his sisters here with us? And they were offended in him. 6:4And Jesus said unto them, A prophet is not without honor, save in his own country, and among his own kin, and in his own house. 6:5And he could there do no mighty work, save that he laid his hands upon a few sick folk, and healed them. 6:6And he marvelled because of their unbelief. And he went round about the villages teaching. 6:7And he calleth unto him the twelve, and began to send them forth by two and two; and he gave them authority over the unclean spirits; 6:8and he charged them that they should take nothing for their journey, save a staff only; no bread, no wallet, now money in their purse; 6:9but to go shod with sandals: and, said he, put not on two coats. 6:10And he said unto them, Wheresoever ye enter into a house, there abide till ye depart thence. 6:11And whatsoever place shall not receive you, and they hear you not, as ye go forth thence, shake off the dust that is under your feet for a testimony unto them. 6:12And they went out, and preached that men should repent. 6:13And they cast out many demons, and anointed with oil many that were sick, and healed them. 6:14And king Herod heard thereof; for his name had become known: and he said, John the Baptizer is risen from the dead, and therefore do these powers work in him. 6:15But others said, It is Elijah. And others said, It is a prophet, even as one of the prophets. 6:16But Herod, when he heard thereof, said, John, whom I beheaded, he is risen. 6:17For Herod himself had sent forth and laid hold upon John, and bound him in prison for the sake of Herodias, his brother Philip's wife; for he had married her. 6:18For John said unto Herod, It is not lawful for thee to have thy brother's wife. 6:19And Herodias set herself against him, and desired to kill him; and she could not; 6:20for Herod feared John, knowing that he was a righteous and holy man, and kept him safe. And when he heard him, he was much perplexed; and he heard him gladly. 6:21And when a convenient day was come, that Herod on his birthday made a supper to his lords, and the high captains, and the chief men of Galilee; 6:22and when the daughter of Herodias herself came in and danced, she pleased Herod and them that sat at meat with him; and the king said unto the damsel, Ask of me whatsoever thou wilt, and I will give it thee. 6:23And he sware unto her, Whatsoever thou shalt ask of me, I will give it thee, unto the half of my kingdom. 6:24And she went out, and said unto her mother, What shall I ask? And she said, The head of John the Baptizer. 6:25And she came in straightway with haste unto the king, and asked, saying, I will that thou forthwith give me on a platter the head of John the Baptist. 6:26And the king was exceeding sorry; but for the sake of his oaths, and of them that sat at meat, he would not reject her. 6:27And straightway the king sent forth a soldier of his guard, and commanded to bring his head: and he went and beheaded him in the prison, 6:28and brought his head on a platter, and gave it to the damsel; and the damsel gave it to her mother. 6:29And when his disciples heard thereof, they came and took up his corpse, and laid it in a tomb. 6:30And the apostles gather themselves together unto Jesus; and they told him all things, whatsoever they had done, and whatsoever they had taught. 6:31And he saith unto them, Come ye yourselves apart into a desert place, and rest a while. For there were many coming and going, and they had no leisure so much as to eat. 6:32And they went away in the boat to a desert place apart. 6:33And the people saw them going, and many knew them, and they ran together there on foot from all the cities, and outwent them. 6:34And he came forth and saw a great multitude, and he had compassion on them, because they were as sheep not having a shepherd: and he began to teach them many things. 6:35And when the day was now far spent, his disciples came unto him, and said, The place is desert, and the day is now far spent; 6:36send them away, that they may go into the country and villages round about, and buy themselves somewhat to eat. 6:37But he answered and said unto them, Give ye them to eat. And they say unto him, Shall we go and buy two hundred shillings' worth of bread, and give them to eat? 6:38And he saith unto them, How many loaves have ye? go and see. And when they knew, they say, Five, and two fishes. 6:39And he commanded them that all should sit down by companies upon the green grass. 6:40And they sat down in ranks, by hundreds, and by fifties. 6:41And he took the five loaves and the two fishes, and looking up to heaven, he blessed, and brake the loaves; and he gave to the disciples to set before them; and the two fishes divided he among them all. 6:42And they all ate, and were filled. 6:43And they took up broken pieces, twelve basketfuls, and also of the fishes. 6:44And they that ate the loaves were five thousand men. 6:45And straightway he constrained his disciples to enter into the boat, and to go before him unto the other side to Bethsaida, while he himself sendeth the multitude away. 6:46And after he had taken leave of them, he departed into the mountain to pray. 6:47And when even was come, the boat was in the midst of the sea, and he alone on the land. 6:48And seeing them distressed in rowing, for the wind was contrary unto them, about the fourth watch of the night he cometh unto them, walking on the sea; and he would have passed by them: 6:49but they, when they saw him walking on the sea, supposed that it was a ghost, and cried out; 6:50for they all saw him, and were troubled. But he straightway spake with them, and saith unto them, Be of good cheer: it is I; be not afraid. 6:51And he went up unto them into the boat; and the wind ceased: and they were sore amazed in themselves; 6:52for they understood not concerning the loaves, but their heart was hardened. 6:53And when they had crossed over, they came to the land unto Gennesaret, and moored to the shore. 6:54And when they were come out of the boat, straightway the people knew him, 6:55and ran round about that whole region, and began to carry about on their beds those that were sick, where they heard he was. 6:56And wheresoever he entered, into villages, or into cities, or into the country, they laid the sick in the marketplaces, and besought him that they might touch if it were but the border of his garment: and as many as touched him were made whole.


Chapter 7


7:1And there are gathered together unto him the Pharisees, and certain of the scribes, who had come from Jerusalem, 7:2and had seen that some of his disciples ate their bread with defiled, that is, unwashen, hands. 7:3(For the Pharisees, and all the Jews, except they wash their hands diligently, eat not, holding the tradition of the elders; 7:4and when they come from the market-place, except they bathe themselves, they eat not; and many other things there are, which they have received to hold, washings of cups, and pots, and brasen vessels.) 7:5And the Pharisees and the scribes ask him, Why walk not thy disciples according to the tradition of the elders, but eat their bread with defiled hands? 7:6And he said unto them, Well did Isaiah prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written,


 This people honoreth me with their lips,
 But their heart is far from me.
 7:7But in vain do they worship me,
 Teaching as their doctrines the precepts of men.


7:8Ye leave the commandment of God, and hold fast the tradition of men. 7:9And he said unto them, Full well do ye reject the commandment of God, that ye may keep your tradition. 7:10For Moses said, Honor thy father and thy mother; and, He that speaketh evil of father or mother, let him die the death: 7:11but ye say, If a man shall say to his father or his mother, That wherewith thou mightest have been profited by me is Corban, that is to say, Given to God; 7:12ye no longer suffer him to do aught for his father or his mother; 7:13making void the word of God by your tradition, which ye have delivered: and many such like things ye do. 7:14And he called to him the multitude again, and said unto them, Hear me all of you, and understand: 7:15there is nothing from without the man, that going into him can defile him; but the things which proceed out of the man are those that defile the man. 7:16If any man hath ears to hear, let him hear. 7:17And when he was entered into the house from the multitude, his disciples asked of him the parable. 7:18And he saith unto them, Are ye so without understanding also? Perceive ye not, that whatsoever from without goeth into the man, it cannot defile him; 7:19because it goeth not into his heart, but into his belly, and goeth out into the draught? This he said, making all meats clean. 7:20And he said, That which proceedeth out of the man, that defileth the man. 7:21For from within, out of the heart of men, evil thoughts proceed, fornications, thefts, murders, adulteries, 7:22covetings, wickednesses, deceit, lasciviousness, an evil eye, railing, pride, foolishness: 7:23all these evil things proceed from within, and defile the man. 7:24And from thence he arose, and went away into the borders of Tyre and Sidon. And he entered into a house, and would have no man know it; and he could not be hid. 7:25But straightway a woman, whose little daughter had an unclean spirit, having heard of him, came and fell down at his feet. 7:26Now the woman was a Greek, a Syrophoenician by race. And she besought him that he would cast forth the demon out of her daughter. 7:27And he said unto her, Let the children first be filled: for it is not meet to take the children's bread and cast it to the dogs. 7:28But she answered and saith unto him, Yea, Lord; even the dogs under the table eat of the children's crumbs. 7:29And he said unto her, For this saying go thy way; the demon is gone out of thy daughter. 7:30And she went away unto her house, and found the child laid upon the bed, and the demon gone out. 7:31And again he went out from the borders of Tyre, and came through Sidon unto the sea of Galilee, through the midst of the borders of Decapolis. 7:32And they bring unto him one that was deaf, and had an impediment in his speech; and they beseech him to lay his hand upon him. 7:33And he took him aside from the multitude privately, and put his fingers into his ears, and he spat, and touched his tongue; 7:34and looking up to heaven, he sighed, and saith unto him, Ephphatha, that is, Be opened. 7:35And his ears were opened, and the bond of his tongue was loosed, and he spake plain. 7:36And he charged them that they should tell no man: but the more he charged them, so much the more a great deal they published it. 7:37And they were beyond measure astonished, saying, He hath done all things well; he maketh even the deaf to hear, and the dumb to speak.


Chapter 8


8:1In those days, when there was again a great multitude, and they had nothing to eat, he called unto him his disciples, and saith unto them, 8:2I have compassion on the multitude, because they continue with me now three days, and have nothing to eat: 8:3and if I send them away fasting to their home, they will faint on the way; and some of them are come from far. 8:4And his disciples answered him, Whence shall one be able to fill these men with bread here in a desert place? 8:5And he asked them, How many loaves have ye? And they said, Seven. 8:6And he commandeth the multitude to sit down on the ground: and he took the seven loaves, and having given thanks, he brake, and gave to his disciples, to set before them; and they set them before the multitude. 8:7And they had a few small fishes: and having blessed them, he commanded to set these also before them. 8:8And they ate, and were filled: and they took up, of broken pieces that remained over, seven baskets. 8:9And they were about four thousand: and he sent them away. 8:10And straightway he entered into the boat with his disciples, and came into the parts of Dalmanutha. 8:11And the Pharisees came forth, and began to question with him, seeking of him a sign from heaven, trying him. 8:12And he sighed deeply in his spirit, and saith, Why doth this generation seek a sign? verily I say unto you, There shall no sign be given unto this generation. 8:13And he left them, and again entering into the boat departed to the other side. 8:14And they forgot to take bread; and they had not in the boat with them more than one loaf. 8:15And he charged them, saying, Take heed, beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and the leaven of Herod. 8:16And they reasoned one with another, saying, We have no bread. 8:17And Jesus perceiving it saith unto them, Why reason ye, because ye have no bread? do ye not yet perceive, neither understand? have ye your heart hardened? 8:18Having eyes, see ye not? and having ears, hear ye not? and do ye not remember? 8:19When I brake the five loaves among the five thousand, how many baskets full of broken pieces took ye up? They say unto him, Twelve. 8:20And when the seven among the four thousand, how many basketfuls of broken pieces took ye up? And they say unto him, Seven. 8:21And he said unto them, Do ye not yet understand? 8:22And they come unto Bethsaida. And they bring to him a blind man, and beseech him to touch him. 8:23And he took hold of the blind man by the hand, and brought him out of the village; and when he had spit on his eyes, and laid his hands upon him, he asked him, Seest thou aught? 8:24And he looked up, and said, I see men; for I behold them as trees, walking. 8:25Then again he laid his hands upon his eyes; and he looked stedfastly, and was restored, and saw all things clearly. 8:26And he sent him away to his home, saying, Do not even enter into the village. 8:27And Jesus went forth, and his disciples, into the villages of Caesarea Philippi: and on the way he asked his disciples, saying unto them, Who do men say that I am? 8:28And they told him, saying, John the Baptist; and others, Elijah; but others, One of the prophets. 8:29And he asked them, But who say ye that I am? Peter answereth and saith unto him, Thou art the Christ. 8:30And he charged them that they should tell no man of him. 8:31And he began to teach them, that the Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected by the elders, and the chief priests, and the scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again. 8:32And he spake the saying openly. And Peter took him, and began to rebuke him. 8:33But he turning about, and seeing his disciples, rebuked Peter, and saith, Get thee behind me, Satan; for thou mindest not the things of God, but the things of men. 8:34And he called unto him the multitude with his disciples, and said unto them, If any man would come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me. 8:35For whosoever would save his life shall lose it; and whosoever shall lose his life for my sake and the gospel's shall save it. 8:36For what doth it profit a man, to gain the whole world, and forfeit his life? 8:37For what should a man give in exchange for his life? 8:38For whosoever shall be ashamed of me and of my words in this adulterous and sinful generation, the Son of man also shall be ashamed of him, when he cometh in the glory of his Father with the holy angels.


Chapter 9


9:1And he said unto them, Verily I say unto you, There are some here of them that stand by, who shall in no wise taste of death, till they see the kingdom of God come with power. 9:2And after six days Jesus taketh with him Peter, and James, and John, and bringeth them up into a high mountain apart by themselves: and he was transfigured before them; 9:3and his garments became glistering, exceeding white, so as no fuller on earth can whiten them. 9:4And there appeared unto them Elijah with Moses: and they were talking with Jesus. 9:5And Peter answereth and saith to Jesus, Rabbi, it is good for us to be here: and let us make three tabernacles; one for thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elijah. 9:6For he knew not what to answer; for they became sore afraid. 9:7And there came a cloud overshadowing them: and there came a voice out of the cloud, This is my beloved Son: hear ye him. 9:8And suddenly looking round about, they saw no one any more, save Jesus only with themselves. 9:9And as they were coming down from the mountain, he charged them that they should tell no man what things they had seen, save when the Son of man should have risen again from the dead. 9:10And they kept the saying, questioning among themselves what the rising again from the dead should mean. 9:11And they asked him, saying, How is it that the scribes say that Elijah must first come? 9:12And he said unto them, Elijah indeed cometh first, and restoreth all things: and how is it written of the Son of man, that he should suffer many things and be set at nought? 9:13But I say unto you, that Elijah is come, and they have also done unto him whatsoever they would, even as it is written of him. 9:14And when they came to the disciples, they saw a great multitude about them, and scribes questioning with them. 9:15And straightway all the multitude, when they saw him, were greatly amazed, and running to him saluted him. 9:16And he asked them, What question ye with them? 9:17And one of the multitude answered him, Teacher, I brought unto thee my son, who hath a dumb spirit; 9:18and wheresoever it taketh him, it dasheth him down: and he foameth, and grindeth his teeth, and pineth away: and I spake to thy disciples that they should cast it out; and they were not able. 9:19And he answereth them and saith, O faithless generation, how long shall I be with you? how long shall I bear with you? bring him unto me. 9:20And they brought him unto him: and when he saw him, straightway the spirit tare him grievously; and he fell on the ground, and wallowed foaming. 9:21And he asked his father, How long time is it since this hath come unto him? And he said, From a child. 9:22And oft-times it hath cast him both into the fire and into the waters, to destroy him: but if thou canst do anything, have compassion on us, and help us. 9:23And Jesus said unto him, If thou canst! All things are possible to him that believeth. 9:24Straightway the father of the child cried out, and said, I believe; help thou mine unbelief. 9:25And when Jesus saw that a multitude came running together, he rebuked the unclean spirit, saying unto him, Thou dumb and deaf spirit, I command thee, come out of him, and enter no more into him. 9:26And having cried out, and torn him much, he came out: and the boy became as one dead; insomuch that the more part said, He is dead. 9:27But Jesus took him by the hand, and raised him up; and he arose. 9:28And when he was come into the house, his disciples asked him privately, How is it that we could not cast it out? 9:29And he said unto them, This kind can come out by nothing, save by prayer. 9:30And they went forth from thence, and passed through Galilee; and he would not that any man should know it. 9:31For he taught his disciples, and said unto them, The Son of man is delivered up into the hands of men, and they shall kill him; and when he is killed, after three days he shall rise again. 9:32But they understood not the saying, and were afraid to ask him. 9:33And they came to Capernaum: and when he was in the house he asked them, What were ye reasoning on the way? 9:34But they held their peace: for they had disputed one with another on the way, who was the greatest. 9:35And he sat down, and called the twelve; and he saith unto them, If any man would be first, he shall be last of all, and servant of all. 9:36And he took a little child, and set him in the midst of them: and taking him in his arms, he said unto them, 9:37Whosoever shall receive one of such little children in my name, receiveth me: and whosoever receiveth me, receiveth not me, but him that sent me. 9:38John said unto him, Teacher, we saw one casting out demons in thy name; and we forbade him, because he followed not us. 9:39But Jesus said, Forbid him not: for there is no man who shall do a mighty work in my name, and be able quickly to speak evil of me. 9:40For he that is not against us is for us. 9:41For whosoever shall give you a cup of water to drink, because ye are Christ's, verily I say unto you, he shall in no wise lose his reward. 9:42And whosoever shall cause one of these little ones that believe on me to stumble, it were better for him if a great millstone were hanged about his neck, and he were cast into the sea. 9:43And if thy hand cause thee to stumble, cut it off: it is good for thee to enter into life maimed, rather than having thy two hands to go into hell, into the unquenchable fire. 9:44where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched. 9:45And if thy foot cause thee to stumble, cut it off: it is good for thee to enter into life halt, rather than having thy two feet to be cast into hell. 9:46where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched. 9:47And if thine eye cause thee to stumble, cast it out: it is good for thee to enter into the kingdom of God with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into hell; 9:48where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched. 9:49For every one shall be salted with fire. 9:50Salt is good: but if the salt have lost its saltness, wherewith will ye season it? Have salt in yourselves, and be at peace one with another.


Chapter 10


10:1And he arose from thence and cometh into the borders of Judaea and beyond the Jordan: and multitudes come together unto him again; and, as he was wont, he taught them again. 10:2And there came unto him Pharisees, and asked him, Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife? trying him. 10:3And he answered and said unto them, What did Moses command you? 10:4And they said, Moses suffered to write a bill of divorcement, and to put her away. 10:5But Jesus said unto them, For your hardness of heart he wrote you this commandment. 10:6But from the beginning of the creation, Male and female made he them. 10:7For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife; 10:8and the two shall become one flesh: so that they are no more two, but one flesh. 10:9What therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder. 10:10And in the house the disciples asked him again of this matter. 10:11And he saith unto them, Whosoever shall put away his wife, and marry another, committeth adultery against her: 10:12and if she herself shall put away her husband, and marry another, she committeth adultery. 10:13And they were bringing unto him little children, that he should touch them: and the disciples rebuked them. 10:14But when Jesus saw it, he was moved with indignation, and said unto them, Suffer the little children to come unto me; forbid them not: for to such belongeth the kingdom of God. 10:15Verily I say unto you, Whosoever shall not receive the kingdom of God as a little child, he shall in no wise enter therein. 10:16And he took them in his arms, and blessed them, laying his hands upon them. 10:17And as he was going forth into the way, there ran one to him, and kneeled to him, and asked him, Good Teacher, what shall I do that I may inherit eternal life? 10:18And Jesus said unto him, Why callest thou me good? none is good save one, even God. 10:19Thou knowest the commandments, Do not kill, Do not commit adultery, Do not steal, Do not bear false witness, Do not defraud, Honor thy father and mother. 10:20And he said unto him, Teacher, all these things have I observed from my youth. 10:21And Jesus looking upon him loved him, and said unto him, One thing thou lackest: go, sell whatsoever thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and come, follow me. 10:22But his countenance fell at the saying, and he went away sorrowful: for he was one that had great possessions. 10:23And Jesus looked round about, and saith unto his disciples, How hardly shall they that have riches enter into the kingdom of God! 10:24And the disciples were amazed at his words. But Jesus answereth again, and saith unto them, Children, how hard is it for them that trust in riches to enter into the kingdom of God! 10:25It is easier for a camel to go through a needle's eye, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God. 10:26And they were astonished exceedingly, saying unto him, Then who can be saved? 10:27Jesus looking upon them saith, With men it is impossible, but not with God: for all things are possible with God. 10:28Peter began to say unto him, Lo, we have left all, and have followed thee. 10:29Jesus said, Verily I say unto you, There is no man that hath left house, or brethren, or sisters, or mother, or father, or children, or lands, for my sake, and for the gospel's sake, 10:30but he shall receive a hundredfold now in this time, houses, and brethren, and sisters, and mothers, and children, and lands, with persecutions; and in the world to come eternal life. 10:31But many that are first shall be last; and the last first. 10:32And they were on the way, going up to Jerusalem; and Jesus was going before them: and they were amazed; and they that followed were afraid. And he took again the twelve, and began to tell them the things that were to happen unto him, 10:33saying, Behold, we go up to Jerusalem; and the Son of man shall be delivered unto the chief priests and the scribes; and they shall condemn him to death, and shall deliver him unto the Gentiles: 10:34and they shall mock him, and shall spit upon him, and shall scourge him, and shall kill him; and after three days he shall rise again. 10:35And there come near unto him James and John, the sons of Zebedee, saying unto him, Teacher, we would that thou shouldest do for us whatsoever we shall ask of thee. 10:36And he said unto them, What would ye that I should do for you? 10:37And they said unto him, Grant unto us that we may sit, one on thy right hand, and one on thy left hand, in thy glory. 10:38But Jesus said unto them, Ye know not what ye ask. Are ye able to drink the cup that I drink? or to be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with? 10:39And they said unto him, We are able. And Jesus said unto them, The cup that I drink ye shall drink; and with the baptism that I am baptized withal shall ye be baptized: 10:40but to sit on my right hand or on my left hand is not mine to give; but it is for them for whom it hath been prepared. 10:41And when the ten heard it, they began to be moved with indignation concerning James and John. 10:42And Jesus called them to him, and saith unto them, Ye know that they who are accounted to rule over the Gentiles lord it over them; and their great ones exercise authority over them. 10:43But it is not so among you: but whosoever would become great among you, shall be your minister; 10:44and whosoever would be first among you, shall be servant of all. 10:45For the Son of man also came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many. 10:46And they come to Jericho: and as he went out from Jericho, with his disciples and a great multitude, the son of Timaeus, Bartimaeus, a blind beggar, was sitting by the way side. 10:47And when he heard that it was Jesus the Nazarene, he began to cry out, and say, Jesus, thou son of David, have mercy on me. 10:48And many rebuked him, that he should hold his peace: but he cried out the more a great deal, Thou son of David, have mercy on me. 10:49And Jesus stood still, and said, Call ye him. And they call the blind man, saying unto him, Be of good cheer: rise, he calleth thee. 10:50And he, casting away his garment, sprang up, and came to Jesus. 10:51And Jesus answered him, and said, What wilt thou that I should do unto thee? And the blind man said unto him, Rabboni, that I may receive my sight. 10:52And Jesus said unto him, Go thy way; thy faith hath made thee whole. And straightway he received his sight, and followed him in the way.


Chapter 11


11:1And when they draw nigh unto Jerusalem, unto Bethphage and Bethany, at the mount of Olives, he sendeth two of his disciples, 11:2and saith unto them, Go your way into the village that is over against you: and straightway as ye enter into it, ye shall find a colt tied, whereon no man ever yet sat; loose him, and bring him. 11:3And if any one say unto you, Why do ye this? say ye, The Lord hath need of him; and straightway he will send him back hither. 11:4And they went away, and found a colt tied at the door without in the open street; and they loose him. 11:5And certain of them that stood there said unto them, What do ye, loosing the colt? 11:6And they said unto them even as Jesus had said: and they let them go. 11:7And they bring the colt unto Jesus, and cast on him their garments; and he sat upon him. 11:8And many spread their garments upon the way; and others branches, which they had cut from the fields. 11:9And they that went before, and they that followed, cried, Hosanna; Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord: 11:10Blessed is the kingdom that cometh, the kingdom of our father David: Hosanna in the highest. 11:11And he entered into Jerusalem, into the temple; and when he had looked round about upon all things, it being now eventide, he went out unto Bethany with the twelve. 11:12And on the morrow, when they were come out from Bethany, he hungered. 11:13And seeing a fig tree afar off having leaves, he came, if haply he might find anything thereon: and when he came to it, he found nothing but leaves; for it was not the season of figs. 11:14And he answered and said unto it, No man eat fruit from thee henceforward for ever. And his disciples heard it. 11:15And they come to Jerusalem: and he entered into the temple, and began to cast out them that sold and them that bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the money-changers, and the seats of them that sold the doves; 11:16and he would not suffer that any man should carry a vessel through the temple. 11:17And he taught, and said unto them, Is it not written, My house shall be called a house of prayer for all the nations? but ye have made it a den of robbers. 11:18And the chief priests and the scribes heard it, and sought how they might destroy him: for they feared him, for all the multitude was astonished at his teaching. 11:19And every evening he went forth out of the city. 11:20And as they passed by in the morning, they saw the fig tree withered away from the roots. 11:21And Peter calling to remembrance saith unto him, Rabbi, behold, the fig tree which thou cursedst is withered away. 11:22And Jesus answering saith unto them, Have faith in God. 11:23Verily I say unto you, Whosoever shall say unto this mountain, Be thou taken up and cast into the sea; and shall not doubt in his heart, but shall believe that what he saith cometh to pass; he shall have it. 11:24Therefore I say unto you, All things whatsoever ye pray and ask for, believe that ye receive them, and ye shall have them. 11:25And whensoever ye stand praying, forgive, if ye have aught against any one; that your Father also who is in heaven may forgive you your trespasses. 11:26But if ye do not forgive, neither will your Father who is in heaven forgive your trespasses. 11:27And they come again to Jerusalem: and as he was walking in the temple, there come to him the chief priests, and the scribes, and the elders; 11:28and they said unto him, By what authority doest thou these things? or who gave thee this authority to do these things? 11:29And Jesus said unto them, I will ask of you one question, and answer me, and I will tell you by what authority I do these things. 11:30The baptism of John, was it from heaven, or from men? answer me. 11:31And they reasoned with themselves, saying, If we shall say, From heaven; He will say, Why then did ye not believe him? 11:32But should we say, From men--they feared the people: for all verily held John to be a prophet. 11:33And they answered Jesus and say, We know not. And Jesus saith unto them, Neither tell I you by what authority I do these things.


Chapter 12


12:1And he began to speak unto them in parables. A man planted a vineyard, and set a hedge about it, and digged a pit for the winepress, and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and went into another country. 12:2And at the season he sent to the husbandmen a servant, that he might receive from the husbandmen of the fruits of the vineyard. 12:3And they took him, and beat him, and sent him away empty. 12:4And again he sent unto them another servant; and him they wounded in the head, and handled shamefully. 12:5And he sent another; and him they killed: and many others; beating some, and killing some. 12:6He had yet one, a beloved son: he sent him last unto them, saying, They will reverence my son. 12:7But those husbandmen said among themselves, This is the heir; come, let us kill him, and the inheritance shall be ours. 12:8And they took him, and killed him, and cast him forth out of the vineyard. 12:9What therefore will the lord of the vineyard do? he will come and destroy the husbandmen, and will give the vineyard unto others. 12:10Have ye not read even this scripture:

The stone which the builders rejected,

The same was made the head of the corner;

12:11This was from the Lord,

And it is marvellous in our eyes?


12:12And they sought to lay hold on him; and they feared the multitude; for they perceived that he spake the parable against them: and they left him, and went away. 12:13And they send unto him certain of the Pharisees and of the Herodians, that they might catch him in talk. 12:14And when they were come, they say unto him, Teacher, we know that thou art true, and carest not for any one; for thou regardest not the person of men, but of a truth teachest the way of God: Is it lawful to give tribute unto Caesar, or not? 12:15Shall we give, or shall we not give? But he, knowing their hypocrisy, said unto them, Why make ye trial of me? bring me a denarius, that I may see it. 12:16And they brought it. And he saith unto them, Whose is this image and superscription? And they said unto him, Caesar's. 12:17And Jesus said unto them, Render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and unto God the things that are God's. And they marvelled greatly at him. 12:18And there come unto him Sadducees, who say that there is no resurrection; and they asked him, saying, 12:19Teacher, Moses wrote unto us, If a man's brother die, and leave a wife behind him, and leave no child, that his brother should take his wife, and raise up seed unto his brother. 12:20There were seven brethren: and the first took a wife, and dying left no seed; 12:21and the second took her, and died, leaving no seed behind him; and the third likewise: 12:22and the seven left no seed. Last of all the woman also died. 12:23In the resurrection whose wife shall she be of them? for the seven had her to wife. 12:24Jesus said unto them, Is it not for this cause that ye err, that ye know not the scriptures, nor the power of God? 12:25For when they shall rise from the dead, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage; but are as angels in heaven. 12:26But as touching the dead, that they are raised; have ye not read in the book of Moses, in the place concerning the Bush, how God spake unto him, saying, I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob? 12:27He is not the God of the dead, but of the living: ye do greatly err. 12:28And one of the scribes came, and heard them questioning together, and knowing that he had answered them well, asked him, What commandment is the first of all? 12:29Jesus answered, The first is, Hear, O Israel; The Lord our God, the Lord is one: 12:30and thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy strength. 12:31The second is this, Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. There is none other commandment greater than these. 12:32And the scribe said unto him, Of a truth, Teacher, thou hast well said that he is one; and there is none other but he: 12:33and to love him with all the heart, and with all the understanding, and with all the strength, and to love his neighbor as himself, is much more than all whole burnt-offerings and sacrifices. 12:34And when Jesus saw that he answered discreetly, he said unto him, Thou art not far from the kingdom of God. And no man after that durst ask him any question. 12:35And Jesus answered and said, as he taught in the temple, How say the scribes that the Christ is the son of David? 12:36David himself said in the Holy Spirit,


 The Lord said unto my Lord,


 Sit thou on my right hand,


 Till I make thine enemies the footstool of thy feet.


12:37David himself calleth him Lord; and whence is he his son? And the common people heard him gladly. 12:38And in his teaching he said, Beware of the scribes, who desire to walk in long robes, and to have salutations in the marketplaces, 12:39and chief seats in the synagogues, and chief places at feasts: 12:40they that devour widows' houses, and for a pretence make long prayers; these shall receive greater condemnation. 12:41And he sat down over against the treasury, and beheld how the multitude cast money into the treasury: and many that were rich cast in much. 12:42And there came a poor widow, and she cast in two mites, which make a farthing. 12:43And he called unto him his disciples, and said unto them, Verily I say unto you, This poor widow cast in more than all they that are casting into the treasury: 12:44for they all did cast in of their superfluity; but she of her want did cast in all that she had, even all her living.


Chapter 13


13:1And as he went forth out of the temple, one of his disciples saith unto him, Teacher, behold, what manner of stones and what manner of buildings! 13:2And Jesus said unto him, Seest thou these great buildings? there shall not be left here one stone upon another, which shall not be thrown down. 13:3And as he sat on the mount of Olives over against the temple, Peter and James and John and Andrew asked him privately, 13:4Tell us, when shall these things be? and what shall be the sign when these things are all about to be accomplished? 13:5And Jesus began to say unto them, Take heed that no man lead you astray. 13:6Many shall come in my name, saying, I am he; and shall lead many astray. 13:7And when ye shall hear of wars and rumors of wars, be not troubled: these things must needs come to pass; but the end is not yet. 13:8For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom; there shall be earthquakes in divers places; there shall be famines: these things are the beginning of travail. 13:9But take ye heed to yourselves: for they shall deliver you up to councils; and in synagogues shall ye be beaten; and before governors and kings shall ye stand for my sake, for a testimony unto them. 13:10And the gospel must first be preached unto all the nations. 13:11And when they lead you to judgment, and deliver you up, be not anxious beforehand what ye shall speak: but whatsoever shall be given you in that hour, that speak ye; for it is not ye that speak, but the Holy Spirit. 13:12And brother shall deliver up brother to death, and the father his child; and children shall rise up against parents, and cause them to be put to death. 13:13And ye shall be hated of all men for my name's sake: but he that endureth to the end, the same shall be saved. 13:14But when ye see the abomination of desolation standing where he ought not (let him that readeth understand), then let them that are in Judaea flee unto the mountains: 13:15and let him that is on the housetop not go down, nor enter in, to take anything out his house: 13:16and let him that is in the field not return back to take his cloak. 13:17But woe unto them that are with child and to them that give suck in those days! 13:18And pray ye that it be not in the winter. 13:19For those days shall be tribulation, such as there hath not been the like from the beginning of the creation which God created until now, and never shall be. 13:20And except the Lord had shortened the days, no flesh would have been saved; but for the elect's sake, whom he chose, he shortened the days. 13:21And then if any man shall say unto you, Lo, here is the Christ; or, Lo, there; believe it not: 13:22for there shall arise false Christs and false prophets, and shall show signs and wonders, that they may lead astray, if possible, the elect. 13:23But take ye heed: behold, I have told you all things beforehand. 13:24But in those days, after that tribulation, the sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, 13:25and the stars shall be falling from heaven, and the powers that are in the heavens shall be shaken. 13:26And then shall they see the Son of man coming in clouds with great power and glory. 13:27And then shall he send forth the angels, and shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from the uttermost part of the earth to the uttermost part of heaven. 13:28Now from the fig tree learn her parable: when her branch is now become tender, and putteth forth its leaves, ye know that the summer is nigh; 13:29even so ye also, when ye see these things coming to pass, know ye that he is nigh, even at the doors. 13:30Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass away, until all these things be accomplished. 13:31Heaven and earth shall pass away: but my words shall not pass away. 13:32But of that day or that hour knoweth no one, not even the angels in heaven, neither the Son, but the Father. 13:33Take ye heed, watch and pray: for ye know not when the time is. 13:34It is as when a man, sojourning in another country, having left his house, and given authority to his servants, to each one his work, commanded also the porter to watch. 13:35Watch therefore: for ye know not when the lord of the house cometh, whether at even, or at midnight, or at cockcrowing, or in the morning; 13:36lest coming suddenly he find you sleeping. 13:37And what I say unto you I say unto all, Watch.


Chapter 14


14:1Now after two days was the feast of the passover and the unleavened bread: and the chief priests and the scribes sought how they might take him with subtlety, and kill him: 14:2for they said, Not during the feast, lest haply there shall be a tumult of the people. 14:3And while he was in Bethany in the house of Simon the leper, as he sat at meat, there came a woman having an alabaster cruse of ointment of pure nard very costly; and she brake the cruse, and poured it over his head. 14:4But there were some that had indignation among themselves, saying, To what purpose hath this waste of the ointment been made? 14:5For this ointment might have been sold for above three hundred shillings, and given to the poor. And they murmured against her. 14:6But Jesus said, Let her alone; why trouble ye her? she hath wrought a good work on me. 14:7For ye have the poor always with you, and whensoever ye will ye can do them good: but me ye have not always. 14:8She hath done what she could; she hath anointed my body beforehand for the burying. 14:9And verily I say unto you, Wheresoever the gospel shall be preached throughout the whole world, that also which this woman hath done shall be spoken of for a memorial of her. 14:10And Judas Iscariot, he that was one of the twelve, went away unto the chief priests, that he might deliver him unto them. 14:11And they, when they heard it, were glad, and promised to give him money. And he sought how he might conveniently deliver him unto them. 14:12And on the first day of unleavened bread, when they sacrificed the passover, his disciples say unto him, Where wilt thou that we go and make ready that thou mayest eat the passover? 14:13And he sendeth two of his disciples, and saith unto them, Go into the city, and there shall meet you a man bearing a pitcher of water: follow him; 14:14and wheresoever he shall enter in, say to the master of the house, The Teacher saith, Where is my guest-chamber, where I shall eat the passover with my disciples? 14:15And he will himself show you a large upper room furnished and ready: and there make ready for us. 14:16And the disciples went forth, and came into the city, and found as he had said unto them: and they made ready the passover. 14:17And when it was evening he cometh with the twelve. 14:18And as they sat and were eating, Jesus said, Verily I say unto you, One of you shall betray me, even he that eateth with me. 14:19They began to be sorrowful, and to say unto him one by one, Is it I? 14:20And he said unto them, It is one of the twelve, he that dippeth with me in the dish. 14:21For the Son of man goeth, even as it is written of him: but woe unto that man through whom the Son of man is betrayed! good were it for that man if he had not been born. 14:22And as they were eating, he took bread, and when he had blessed, he brake it, and gave to them, and said, Take ye: this is my body. 14:23And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave to them: and they all drank of it. 14:24And he said unto them, This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many. 14:25Verily I say unto you, I shall no more drink of the fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it new in the kingdom of God. 14:26And when they had sung a hymn, they went out unto the mount of Olives. 14:27And Jesus saith unto them, All ye shall be offended: for it is written, I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep shall be scattered abroad. 14:28Howbeit, after I am raised up, I will go before you into Galilee. 14:29But Peter said unto him, Although all shall be offended, yet will not I. 14:30And Jesus saith unto him, Verily I say unto thee, that thou to-day, even this night, before the cock crow twice, shalt deny me thrice. 14:31But he spake exceedingly vehemently, If I must die with thee, I will not deny thee. And in like manner also said they all. 14:32And they come unto a place which was named Gethsemane: and he saith unto his disciples, Sit ye here, while I pray. 14:33And he taketh with him Peter and James and John, and began to be greatly amazed, and sore troubled. 14:34And he saith unto them, My soul is exceeding sorrowful even unto death: abide ye here, and watch. 14:35And he went forward a little, and fell on the ground, and prayed that, if it were possible, the hour might pass away from him. 14:36And he said, Abba, Father, all things are possible unto thee; remove this cup from me: howbeit not what I will, but what thou wilt. 14:37And he cometh, and findeth them sleeping, and saith unto Peter, Simon, sleepest thou? couldest thou not watch one hour? 14:38Watch and pray, that ye enter not into temptation: the spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak. 14:39And again he went away, and prayed, saying the same words. 14:40And again he came, and found them sleeping, for their eyes were very heavy; and they knew not what to answer him. 14:41And he cometh the third time, and saith unto them, Sleep on now, and take your rest: it is enough; the hour is come; behold, the Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. 14:42Arise, let us be going: behold, he that betrayeth me is at hand. 14:43And straightway, while he yet spake, cometh Judas, one of the twelve, and with him a multitude with swords and staves, from the chief priests and the scribes and the elders. 14:44Now he that betrayed him had given them a token, saying, Whomsoever I shall kiss, that is he; take him, and lead him away safely. 14:45And when he was come, straightway he came to him, and saith, Rabbi; and kissed him. 14:46And they laid hands on him, and took him. 14:47But a certain one of them that stood by drew his sword, and smote the servant of the high priest, and struck off his ear. 14:48And Jesus answered and said unto them, Are ye come out, as against a robber, with swords and staves to seize me? 14:49I was daily with you in the temple teaching, and ye took me not: but this is done that the scriptures might be fulfilled. 14:50And they all left him, and fled. 14:51And a certain young man followed with him, having a linen cloth cast about him, over his naked body: and they lay hold on him; 14:52but he left the linen cloth, and fled naked. 14:53And they led Jesus away to the high priest: and there come together with him all the chief priests and the elders and the scribes. 14:54And Peter had followed him afar off, even within, into the court of the high priest; and he was sitting with the officers, and warming himself in the light of the fire. 14:55Now the chief priests and the whole council sought witness against Jesus to put him to death; and found it not. 14:56For many bare false witness against him, and their witness agreed not together. 14:57And there stood up certain, and bare false witness against him, saying, 14:58We heard him say, I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and in three days I will build another made without hands. 14:59And not even so did their witness agree together. 14:60And the high priest stood up in the midst, and asked Jesus, saying, Answerest thou nothing? what is it which these witness against thee? 14:61But he held his peace, and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked him, and saith unto him, Art thou the Christ, the Son of the Blessed? 14:62And Jesus said, I am: and ye shall see the Son of man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming with the clouds of heaven. 14:63And the high priest rent his clothes, and saith, What further need have we of witnesses? 14:64Ye have heard the blasphemy: what think ye? And they all condemned him to be worthy of death. 14:65And some began to spit on him, and to cover his face, and to buffet him, and to say unto him, Prophesy: and the officers received him with blows of their hands. 14:66And as Peter was beneath in the court, there cometh one of the maids of the high priest; 14:67and seeing Peter warming himself, she looked upon him, and saith, Thou also wast with the Nazarene, even Jesus. 14:68But he denied, saying, I neither know, nor understand what thou sayest: and he went out into the porch; and the cock crew. 14:69And the maid saw him, and began again to say to them that stood by, This is one of them. 14:70But he again denied it. And after a little while again they that stood by said to Peter, of a truth thou art one of them; for thou art a Galilaean. 14:71But he began to curse, and to swear, I know not this man of whom ye speak. 14:72And straightway the second time the cock crew. And Peter called to mind the word, how that Jesus said unto him, Before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice. And when he thought thereon, he wept.


Chapter 15


15:1And straightway in the morning the chief priests with the elders and scribes, and the whole council, held a consultation, and bound Jesus, and carried him away, and delivered him up to Pilate. 15:2And Pilate asked him, Art thou the King of the Jews? And he answering saith unto him, Thou sayest. 15:3And the chief priests accused him of many things. 15:4And Pilate again asked him, saying, Answerest thou nothing? behold how many things they accuse thee of. 15:5But Jesus no more answered anything; insomuch that Pilate marvelled. 15:6Now at the feast he used to release unto them one prisoner, whom they asked of him. 15:7And there was one called Barabbas, lying bound with them that had made insurrection, men who in the insurrection had committed murder. 15:8And the multitude went up and began to ask him to do as he was wont to do unto them. 15:9And Pilate answered them, saying, Will ye that I release unto you the King of the Jews? 15:10For he perceived that for envy the chief priests had delivered him up. 15:11But the chief priests stirred up the multitude, that he should rather release Barabbas unto them. 15:12And Pilate again answered and said unto them, What then shall I do unto him whom ye call the King of the Jews? 15:13And they cried out again, Crucify him. 15:14And Pilate said unto them, Why, what evil hath he done? But they cried out exceedingly, Crucify him. 15:15And Pilate, wishing to content the multitude, released unto them Barabbas, and delivered Jesus, when he had scourged him, to be crucified. 15:16And the soldiers led him away within the court, which is the Praetorium; and they call together the whole band. 15:17And they clothe him with purple, and platting a crown of thorns, they put it on him; 15:18and they began to salute him, Hail, King of the Jews! 15:19And they smote his head with a reed, and spat upon him, and bowing their knees worshipped him. 15:20And when they had mocked him, they took off from him the purple, and put on him his garments. And they lead him out to crucify him. 15:21And they compel one passing by, Simon of Cyrene, coming from the country, the father of Alexander and Rufus, to go with them, that he might bear his cross. 15:22And they bring him unto the place Golgotha, which is, being interpreted, The place of a skull. 15:23And they offered him wine mingled with myrrh: but he received it not. 15:24And they crucify him, and part his garments among them, casting lots upon them, what each should take. 15:25And it was the third hour, and they crucified him. 15:26And the superscription of his accusation was written over, THE KING OF THE JEWS. 15:27And with him they crucify two robbers; one on his right hand, and one on his left. 15:28And the scripture was fulfilled, which saith, And he was reckoned with transgressors. 15:29And they that passed by railed on him, wagging their heads, and saying, Ha! Thou that destroyest the temple, and buildest it in three days, 15:30save thyself, and come down from the cross. 15:31In like manner also the chief priests mocking him among themselves with the scribes said, He saved others; himself he cannot save. 15:32Let the Christ, the King of Israel, now come down from the cross, that we may see and believe. And they that were crucified with him reproached him. 15:33And when the sixth hour was come, there was darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour. 15:34And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani? which is, being interpreted, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? 15:35And some of them that stood by, when they heard it, said, Behold, he calleth Elijah. 15:36And one ran, and filling a sponge full of vinegar, put it on a reed, and gave him to drink, saying, Let be; let us see whether Elijah cometh to take him down. 15:37And Jesus uttered a loud voice, and gave up the ghost. 15:38And the veil of the temple was rent in two from the top to the bottom. 15:39And when the centurion, who stood by over against him, saw that he so gave up the ghost, he said, Truly this man was the Son of God. 15:40And there were also women beholding from afar: among whom were both Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James the less and of Joses, and Salome; 15:41who, when he was in Galilee, followed him, and ministered unto him; and many other women that came up with him unto Jerusalem. 15:42And when even was now come, because it was the Preparation, that is, the day before the sabbath, 15:43there came Joseph of Arimathaea, a councillor of honorable estate, who also himself was looking for the kingdom of God; and he boldly went in unto Pilate, and asked for the body of Jesus. 15:44And Pilate marvelled if he were already dead: and calling unto him the centurion, he asked him whether he had been any while dead. 15:45And when he learned it of the centurion, he granted the corpse to Joseph. 15:46And he bought a linen cloth, and taking him down, wound him in the linen cloth, and laid him in a tomb which had been hewn out of a rock; and he rolled a stone against the door of the tomb. 15:47And Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Joses beheld where he was laid.


Chapter 16


16:1And when the sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, bought spices, that they might come and anoint him. 16:2And very early on the first day of the week, they come to the tomb when the sun was risen. 16:3And they were saying among themselves, Who shall roll us away the stone from the door of the tomb? 16:4and looking up, they see that the stone is rolled back: for it was exceeding great. 16:5And entering into the tomb, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, arrayed in a white robe; and they were amazed. 16:6And he saith unto them, Be not amazed: ye seek Jesus, the Nazarene, who hath been crucified: he is risen; he is not here: behold, the place where they laid him! 16:7But go, tell his disciples and Peter, He goeth before you into Galilee: there shall ye see him, as he said unto you. 16:8And they went out, and fled from the tomb; for trembling and astonishment had come upon them: and they said nothing to any one; for they were afraid.


Chapter 16 longer ending


16:9Now when he was risen early on the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, from whom he had cast out seven demons. 16:10She went and told them that had been with him, as they mourned and wept. 16:11And they, when they heard that he was alive, and had been seen of her, disbelieved. 16:12And after these things he was manifested in another form unto two of them, as they walked, on their way into the country. 16:13And they went away and told it unto the rest: neither believed they them. 16:14And afterward he was manifested unto the eleven themselves as they sat at meat; and he upbraided them with their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they believed not them that had seen him after he was risen. 16:15And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to the whole creation. 16:16He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that disbelieveth shall be condemned. 16:17And these signs shall accompany them that believe: in my name shall they cast out demons; they shall speak with new tongues; 16:18they shall take up serpents, and if they drink any deadly thing, it shall in no wise hurt them; they shall lay hands on the sick, and they shall recover. 16:19So then the Lord Jesus, after he had spoken unto them, was received up into heaven, and sat down at the right hand of God. 16:20And they went forth, and preached everywhere, the Lord working with them, and confirming the word by the signs that followed. Amen.